Male human papillomavirus (HPV) infection significantly contributes to infection and subsequent cervical disease in women.
NEW YORK, NY, UNITED STATES, November 30, 2018 /EINPresswire.com/ — Male human papillomavirus (HPV) infection significantly contributes to infection and subsequent cervical disease in women.1,9 Several studies of women with cervical cancer and their husbands have shown that men's sexual behavior affects women's risk of cervical neoplasia (neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue), even when controlling for female sexual activity. In areas with a high incidence of cervical cancer, men's sexual behavior is a risk factor for cervical neoplasia.2,3,10 More recently, studies have shown that HPV contributes to men's burden of diseases such prostate and oropharyngeal cancers and genital warts. Therefore, it is important to recognize the growing interest in understanding HPV infection in men and to learn about new alternative and natural ways to prevent it. Fucoidan, a natural polysaccharide obtained from brown seaweeds (Mozuku, Mekabu and Fucus), has demonstrated to have anti-HPV activities and can be used as an alternative for the prevention of HPV.
Fucoidan, particularly obtained from Mozuku, Mekabu and Fucus, is one of the most commonly used natural products with anti-HPV activities that can emerge as potential treatments for different types of cancer because it contains polysaccharides, phytochemicals and isolated active compounds.
As in the cervix, HPV can be found frequently in samples obtained from the anus and male genitals. Approximately 20% of men have HPV DNA detected in the anogenital (including coronal, shaft, scrotum and anal) area. This wide range is due in part to the difficulty in obtaining adequate samples from the genitals of men. 3,4,5 In men who have sex with men, the prevalence of anal HPV is much higher. The highest prevalence can be found in HIV-infected homosexual men with a prevalence of over 90% in the anus. Anal HPV infections are also common in adolescent and adult women with rates ranging from 13% to 50%. As in men, the highest prevalence of anal HPV in women is found in those who are HIV-infected.6,7
The most common risk associated with detection of HPV in the anogenital area in heterosexual men is the number of lifetime sexual partners. However, unlike women, older men are as likely as younger men to be HPV-infected. This is true whether the men are heterosexual or homosexual. The reasons for this difference may be that men do not develop adequate immune responses to maintain protection. Studies have shown that at all ages the antibody levels are lower for men than for women. Alternatively, men may be having more new sex partners than women.8,10
Fucoidan derived from brown seaweeds (Mozuku, Mekabu and Fucus) has shown to have a variety of bioactivities such as antitumor, antiviral, anticoagulant, antioxidant, immuno-inflammatory effects and other medicinal properties. The studies on the antiviral actions of Fucoidan are increasing interests in the research areas, particularly its anti-HPV properties. Fucoidan can either inhibit the replication of virus through interfering viral life cycle or improve the host antiviral immune responses to accelerate the process of viral clearance. The life cycle of viruses differs greatly between species but there are six basic stages in the life cycle of viruses: viral adsorption, viral penetration, uncoating of capsids, biosynthesis, viral assembly and viral release. Fucoidan can inhibit viral life cycle at different stages or directly inactivate virions before virus infection. Specific antiviral mechanism of Fucoidan is commonly related to specific structure features of the polysaccharide.
As the immune system is the first line of defense against HPV, boosting it can help fight off the virus naturally. Fucoidan has been shown to increase the likelihood of clearing HPV. The best Fucoidan is obtained from the brown seaweeds Mozuku, Mekabu and Fucus. It is suggested to take Fucoidan that includes beta-glucans to get the best results. In conclusion, Fucoidan, especially obtained from Mozuku, Mekabu and Fucus, has many advantages, such as broad spectrum of antiviral properties and low cytotoxicity, which suggest that Fucoidan is a promising antivirals extract that can be used alone or in combination with other ingredients like beta-glucans.
1. Frenkl T, Potts J. Sexually transmitted diseases. In: Wein A. Campbell-Walsh Urology. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2007 : 371-385.
2. Frisch M, Glimelius B, van den Brule AJ, et al. Sexually transmitted infection as a cause of anal cancer. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(19):1350-1358.
3. Walboomers JM, Jacobs MV, Manos MM, et al. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J Pathol. 1999;189(1):12-19.
4. Kulasingam SL, Hughes JP, Kiviat NB, et al. Evaluation of human papillomavirus testing in primary screening for cervical abnormalities: comparison of sensitivity, specificity, and frequency of referral. JAMA. 2002;288(14):1749-1757.
5. Schneider A, Kirchmayr R, De Villiers EM, Gissmann L. Subclinical human papillomavirus infection in male sexual partners of female carriers. J Urol. 1988;140(6):1431-1434.
6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HPV and men. CDC Fact Sheet. http://www.cdc.gov/std/HPV/STDFact-HPV-and-men.htm. Accessed September 5, 2009.
7. Dunne EF, Nielson CM, Stone KM, Markowitz LE, Giuliano AR. Prevalence of HPV infection among men: a systematic review of the literature. J Infect Dis. 2006;194(8):1044-1057.
Dr. Susana Trujillo
Dr. Susana Trujillo
email us here
Source: EIN Presswire